Iran and Central Asia in ancient times. Natural conditions and population
Iran is a vast plateau, Central part of which is barren desert with a pronounced continental climate. More conducive to the development of the economy and culture of the oases located along surrounding the highlands of the mountain ranges and irrigated by small rivers and streams. In the North of the plateau rises a system of Elbrus. To adjoin the Turkmen-Khorasan mountains, a Northern branch of which passes on the territory of Central Asia and is called the Kopet-Dagh. From the West and the South-East highlands protect the Zagros and South-Iranian mountains. In ancient times on the slopes of all these mountains were green with rich forests, yielding timber wood. On the elevated areas barley grows in the wild and is still found mountain goats and sheep. In most parts of Iran, agriculture requires irrigation, the use of all water resources small rivers, running down from the mountains and streams, and even seasonal streams. Relatively well provided with water southwest of Iran in Khuzestan, where the rivers karok language and Cerha, and the dry subtropical climate and fertile soil enable us to obtain large yields. Of minerals other than oil, in ancient times, almost not used, there are deposits of copper, iron and silver.
The territory of Central Asia largely comprises the Turan lowland, the rivers Amudarya and Syrdarya. However, almost all the lowland is occupied by two large sandy deserts: the Karakum and the Kyzylkum. In the South, between the Karakum desert and Kopetdag mountains runs a narrow strip of foothill plains, irrigated running down from the mountains flows. Further to the East flow two major rivers — the Murghab and the Tedzhen (GE-rerad), the Delta of which is damped in the Karakum Sands. Between the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya flows another river — the-Ravshan, on its banks are the richest oases in Central Asia. Very convenient for irrigation and loess valleys of the right tributaries of the Amu Darya with their characteristic warm summers and mild winters. In the East of Central Asia are vast mountain ranges— the Tien Shan and Pamir mountain system. In different places of Central Asia there are deposits of iron, tin and silver. To the South of the Amu Darya within the territory of modern Afghanistan is a field of lapis lazuli — a beautiful blue stone, highly appreciated all over the Ancient East.
In ancient times in Western Iran lived the Elamites, lullubi, cutie (or but they resisted sharply), cassity and other little-known us tribes. They spoke different languages neitherpast. However, information about these languages is very scarce, except for Elamite. The Elamites by their language and origin were related who lived East of them, the Dravidian tribes. Perhaps in the IV—III Millennium BC. e. tribes, related to the Dravidians and Elamites, were distributed fairly widely, and one of them belonged to the ancient populations South-West of Central Asia. Later in this region penetrate the peoples of the Indo-Iranian language branch, called themselves Aryans. From their name and the name Iran is the abbreviated form from the Arians —”land of the Aryans”. In Iran and Central Asia is firmly established tribes of the Iranian language group, whereas indomethacine arias has advanced further in the Indian subcontinent. Everywhere in these regions was an assimilation of local tribes and their transition to the Iranian dialects. Since the first third of the first Millennium BC Iranian-speaking population lived in large parts of Iran and Central Asia. Already at the earliest stage of development of Iranian languages, ancient Iranian language referred to as the era and ended in the IV—III centuries BC zapadnobacki there is a group of dialects that were spoken, in particular, mussels hospitals and Persians, and a group of Eastern Iranian dialects of the population of the sedentary regions of Central Asia (Bactria. Of Sogdiana, Khorezm) and their nomadic neighbours of the Saka tribes.